Alternating Current, an electric current that reverses direction at regular intervals.

Unit of electric current.

Power Factor is the ratio of active power to apparent power and it is a major component in measuring electrical consumption.

Active power factor control (APFC) is a technology in power supply to the power factor actively. With high power factor load (>0.90), the power cable and generator can delivery more power with same current.

Battery Electric Vehicle- A 100% battery-powered Electric Vehicle.

The CCS1 plug is an enhanced version of the Type 1 AC plug with an additional two power contacts to enable DC fast charging. CCS1 is the most common fast charging plug across North America besides Tesla's Supercharger technology which has its own plug and can charge at speeds of up to 350 kW.

The Combined Charging System or CCS for short is the fast charging plug standard in North America (CCS1) and Europe (CCS2). It’s called a combined charging system because it supports both AC and DC charging.


This quick charging system allows for charging capacities up to 50 kW at appropriate public charging stations. The following manufacturers offer electric cars which are compatible with the CHAdeMO plug:

BD Otomotive, Citroën, Honda, Kia, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Peugeot, Subaru, Tesla (with adaptor), and Toyota.

Refilling an electric car’s battery with electricity.

An element of infrastructure that safely supplies electric energy for the recharging of electric vehicles, also known as an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment).

A device attached to the cable from an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment) that connects to an electric vehicle allowing it to charge.

Control Pilot is a communication line used to signal charging level between the electrical vehicle and the charger, and can be manipulated by vehicle to initiate charging as well as other information.

Division Of Measurement Standards: California Type Evaluation Program (CTEP).

Before any new type of weighing or measuring device can be sold or used for commercial purposes in California, it must be evaluated and approved by the Department of Food and Agriculture, Division of Measurement Standards (DMS).

DMS' California Type Evaluation Program (CTEP) evaluates a device according to California's Laws and Regulations. The purpose of type evaluation is to certify that the design and performance of a new commercial weighing or measuring device model is suitable for its intended use, is accurate, operates correctly, has all required markings, and prevents the facilitation of fraud. Upon successful CTEP evaluation, DMS issues a Certificate of Approval (COA) that allows the device to be used for commercial purposes. The CTEP Information Guide offers additional information about type evaluation.

Direct Current – An electric current of constant direction.

The fastest (high powered) way to charge electric vehicles quickly with an electrical output ranging from 50kW – 120kW. This will fully charge an average electric car in 30 to 40 minutes.

Demand response (DR) is a measure for reducing energy load in response to supply constraints, generally during periods of peak demand.

ENERGY STAR certified products are the same or better than standard products, only they use less energy. To earn the ENERGY STAR, they must meet strict energy efficiency criteria set by the US Environmental Protection Agency or the US Department of Energy. Since they use less energy, these products save you money on your electricity bill and help protect the environment by causing fewer harmful emissions from power plants. And you get the features and quality you expect.

Electric Vehicle - Any vehicle that uses electric motors, either in full or in part, as propulsion.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. A safety protocol that enables two-way communication between a charging station and electric vehicle. Basically, it controls the safe current flow between the charger and your EV.

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is in charge of the development, enforcement and implementation of regulations that Congress set forth in the Communications Act of 1934 and the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The FCC is an agency of the United States federal government that was created to regulate all forms of telecommunication inside of the U.S. including radio, television, digital cameras, Bluetooth, wireless devices and a broad gamut of RF electronics.

When an electronic device has an FCC certificate, it means the product has been tested to comply with FCC standards and it has been approved. An FCC certification does not imply that the product is safe or durable. It simply means that it meets regulated limits for ionizing radiation. A certification does not imply that the device was manufactured any specific way. FCC approval can be granted as long as the electronic device meets FCC emission rules and regulations and has been tested to comply with FCC standards.

Internal Combustion Engine –The technical name for the gas-powered engine in most cars, SUVs, and trucks. It generates power by igniting an air-fuel mixture within a cylinder that forces down a piston. The number of cylinders in most modern engines varies from three all the way up to twelve, and engines can be enhanced with forced induction devices, called turbochargers and superchargers, that force more air into a cylinder to generate extra power. The byproduct of this power generation, however, are harmful emissions like hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), as well as carbon dioxide (CO2).

IK ratings are defined as IK and a number from 00 to 10, this indicates the degree of protection provided by the electrical enclosures against external mechanical impacts.

IK10 is the highest measurement rating for protection from physical damage, and should protect against many human-based forms of destructive vandalism.

IMD - Insulation Monitoring Device, used to permanently monitor the insulation level of the IT earthing system.

Complete protection against contact with live or moving parts inside the enclosure. Protection against harmful deposits of dust. The ingress of dust is not totally prevented, but cannot enter in an amount sufficient to interfere with satisfactory operation of the machine.

Water projected by a nozzle against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect.

JSON is an open standard file format and data interchange format that uses human-readable text to store and transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs and arrays. It is a common data format with diverse uses in electronic data interchange, including that of web applications with servers.

Kilowatt-hour - A unit of energy equivalent to the energy transferred or expended in one hour by one kilowatt of power. Electric car battery size is measured in kilowatt-hours, so think of it as the electric car's equivalent of gallons of fuel in a gas tank.

This is the current standard in electric vehicle batteries, offering good energy density, power, and fast charging ability. The life of a lithium-ion battery is estimated to be the same as the life of the car (eight to ten years). Of course, ‘end of life’ here does not mean a car or its batteries won’t work – after 10 years a lithium-ion battery is expected to be 80% still efficient, so they will still be usable – replacement will be a choice, not a requirement.

On-site circuit/outlet delivers 110-120V of alternating current. Typically, a “cord set” is used to connect to a 120V wall outlet at 15, 20 or 30 amps, which usually comes with the EV. The output to the vehicle is AC current. Cord sets provide a way of charging while at home or away on a trip where a quicker-charging Level 2 unit is not available. The low power flow leads to long recharge times. Due to this long recharge time, a large majority of electric vehicle owners will install and use a higher power Level 2 unit.

Level 2 supplies 240V, like what an electric dryer or oven uses. It goes through a box and a cord that improves safety by waiting to send power to the plug until it’s plugged into an EV.

Level 3 charging is the fastest type of charging available and can recharge an EV at a rate of 3 to 20 miles of range per minute. Unlike Level 1 and Level 2 charging that uses alternating current (AC), Level 3 charging uses direct current (DC).

Load management, also known as demand-side management (DSM), is the process of balancing the supply of electricity on the network with the electrical load by adjusting or controlling the load rather than the power station output.

Local Load Management, also known as demand-side management (DSM), is the process of regulating the use of electricity on the grid, by adjusting or controlling the load rather than the power station output.

Local load management allows you to use your building's existing electrical panel power capacity to charge multiple electric vehicles via charging stations by allowing the charging stations to talk to each other, doling out a steady electrical current to each.

LVP - Low Voltage Protection

A microcontroller unit (MCU) is a small computer on a single VLSI integrated circuit (IC) chip. A microcontroller contains one or more CPUs (processor cores) along with memory and programmable input/output peripherals.

It is the brain of the EV Charger.

NEMA 3R is one of NEMA Enclosure Ratings.

NEMA 3R   Enclosures constructed for either indoor or outdoor use to provide a degree of protection against rain, sleet, wind-blown dust, and will remain undamaged by the external formation of ice on the enclosure. A small drain hole on the bottom allows for ventilation and quick dispersion of any water that may enter the enclosure.

NEMA 4 is one of NEMA Enclosure Ratings.

NEMA 4: Weather tight (weatherproof) enclosures. Constructed for either indoor or outdoor use to provide a degree of protection against falling dirt, rain, sleet, snow, windblown dust, splashing water, and hose-directed water. Will be undamaged by the external formation of ice on the enclosure.

Over Current Protection

OCPP is simply a syntax (language) used to communicate between a networked charging station and a network management system. Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) was defined by an informal group known as the OCPP Forum led by two companies from the Netherlands.

Version 1.6 is current version of OCPP certification. Version 2.0 is the next version.

Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) is a research and standards development effort for energy management led by North American research labs and companies.

It is an alternative to building more power plants in order to accommodate an increased demand for capacity. ADR uses automation systems to communicate signals from utilities to energy-using devices that causes them to turn off during periods of high demand.

OPP - Over Power Protection

An over-the-air (OTA) update is the wireless delivery of new software, firmware, or other data to mobile devices. Wireless carriers and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) typically use over-the-air updates to deploy firmware and configure phones for use on their networks over Wi-Fi or mobile broadband.

Over Temperature Protection

Over Voltage Protection

Grounding of Power Distribution System and Equipment

IEC-60364-3 Naming-Convention-of-AC-power-systems

QR Code is a two-dimensional version of the barcode, typically made up of black and white pixel patterns. Denso Wave, a Japanese subsidiary of the Toyota supplier Denso, developed them for marking components in order to accelerate logistics processes for their automobile production. Now, it has found its way into mobile marketing with the widespread adoption of smartphones. "QR" stands for "Quick Response", which refers to the instant access to the information hidden in the Code.

The distance you can travel on pure electric power before the battery requires a recharge.

Residual Current Device (RCD), is a life-saving device which is designed to prevent you from getting a fatal electric shock if you touch something live, such as a bare wire. It can also provide some protection against electrical fires.

RFID (radio frequency identification) is a form of wireless communication that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal or person.

SAE J1772, also known as a J plug or Type 1 connector after its international standard, IEC 62196 Type 1,  is a North American standard for electrical connectors for electric vehicles. The SAE standard covers the general physical, electrical, functional, and performance requirements to facilitate conductive charging of EV/PHEV vehicles.

The CCS plug is an enhanced version of the type 2 plug, with two additional power contacts for the purposes of quick charging, and supports AC and DC charging power levels (alternating and direct current charging power levels) of up to 170 kW. In practice, the value is usually around 50 kW.

Single-phase power is a two-wire alternating current (ac) power circuit. Typically, there is one power wire—the phase wire—and one neutral wire, with current flowing between the power wire (through the load) and the neutral wire.

Residential homes are usually served by a single-phase power supply, while commercial and industrial facilities usually use a three-phase supply. One key difference between single-phase vs. three-phase is that a three-phase power supply better accommodates higher loads. Single-phase power supplies are most commonly used when typical loads are lighting or heating, rather than large electric motors.

Surge Protective Devices (SPD) are used to protect the electrical installation, which consists of the consumer unit, wiring and accessories, from electrical power surges known as transient overvoltages.

Three-phase power is a three-wire ac power circuit with each phase ac signal 120 electrical degrees apart.

Residential homes are usually served by a single-phase power supply, while commercial and industrial facilities usually use a three-phase supply. One key difference between single-phase vs. three-phase is that a three-phase power supply better accommodates higher loads. Single-phase power supplies are most commonly used when typical loads are lighting or heating, rather than large electric motors.

The type 1 plug is a single-phase plug that allows for charging power levels of up to 7.4 kW (230 V, 32 A).

Triple-phase plug. In private spaces, charging power levels of up to 22 kW are common, while charging power levels of up to 43 kW (400 V, 63 A, AC) can be used at public charging stations. Most public charging stations are equipped with a type 2 socket. All mode 3 charging cables can be used with this, and electric cars can be charged with both type 1 and type 2 plugs. All mode 3 cables on the sides of charging stations have so-called Mennekes plugs (type 2).

For its supercharger, Tesla uses a modified version of the type 2 Mennekes plug. This allows for the Model S to recharge to 80% within 30 minutes.

UL Certification allows a company to innovate its safety standards and align themselves with industry-wide best practices. Being UL certified illustrates a businesses' dedication to consumer safety, as well as the quality of their products.

Utility rates vary according to high- and low-peak use hours. Thus the rate charged to an EV customer is based not only on the total electricity used, but also upon the time of day the energy was drawn.

Under Voltage Protection